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Archive for the ‘Book Reviews’ Category

mancini_church_unique_3Summary: Church Unique by Will Mancini is a comprehensive book on creating a mission oriented church that clearly understands where it is going and how it is creating a unique impression that only it can offer.  Mancini has crafted a process for looking deep into the nuts and bolts of mission, vision, values and communication and making that real in the church.

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In a world of cookie cutter models of church that invite us to follow the next guy, just because it’s working over there, Church Unique offers a process for church leaders that carries them through a unique path to creating God’s unique expression for each church.  For this reason alone, every church pastor should pick up and read this book.  It is a clarion call to discover the harder path that allow each church to resonate in a distinct way.

The book is broken up into four sections that all deal with vision: Recasting Vision, Clarifying Vision, Articulating Vision, and Advancing Vision.  Each section offers a detailed understanding of Mancini’s process for creating this unique expression.  My favorite section was Mancini’s concept of “Thinkholes”.  This section alone was worth the price of the book (my copy was a gift by Auxano but I wanted to read it).

Mancini offers a quote that resonated with me for days and one of the central reasons for discovering the Unique DNA of each church.  He says,

“The dramatic irony is that what happens at the conference is the exact opposite of what propelled the host church to be effective in the first place.  Each of these leaders endured a process of self-understanding and original thinking that helped in articulating a stunningly unique model of ministry.”

That is brilliant my friends.  It is essentially the trial and error process, hard work, and resolve around a unique expression imparted by God that makes churches grow.  And those leaders/pastors willing to take that risk usually end up on the stage.

The rest of the book identifies Auxano’s process for helping churches discover their own Unique expression.  These include: Discovering your kingdom concept, Developing your vision frame, and delivering your vision daily.

Mancini’s process is dense and would obviously benefit from Auxano’s help through the process.  I have a background in marketing, communications and business in Silicon Valley and I found I had to set the book down at times to chew on what was said.

There will be those who would easily bash the book for it’s emphasis on the business structure it proposes.  But I would suggest that any church needs to understand it’s own unique expression, the vision and mission it wishes to follow and how to communicate that effectively.  Mancini offers a “unique” process for discovering that.

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tangible2Summary: The Tangible Kingdom, Creating Incarnational Community, by Hugh Halter and Matt Smay is a great starter book for those looking to create the initial framework for a missional type community that goes beyond the walls of traditional Sunday church.

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The Tangible Kingdom begins with a rather compelling story of Hugh finding his own transition out of traditional church and into a more missional approach.  He engages what many would call an epiphany moment of being Jesus to the least of these.  Hugh recounts meeting Fiona and the rest of a late night crew in a Irish Pub and realizing that it takes love to reach people.

This beginning captures me right from the start.  Hugh’s own journey out of traditional community and into what it looked like to start his own “incarnational” community took time and patience.  The book will serve as a practical reminder of not just the tangible expressions of this type of community but also the emotional roller coaster that those who attempt it will encounter.  But Hugh makes it very clear that it was definitely worth the ride.

Most of the book is Hugh’s journey in starting Adullum. Adullum appears to be an emerging community that is really taking to heart what it means to be missional in a community. Matt is referenced but seems to contribute only the questions at the end of the chapter.  Hugh has some great conversations about what it means to be missional that serve as great starting points to reaching out to those in your community.  His ideas on “posture” and “missionary as advocate” should be Reading 101.

Hugh makes it very clear right from the beginning that he is confrontational in style.  His critique of Christendom is well founded but will, as even he admits, rub many the wrong way.  If you let this get in the way of the book, you’ll be missing some real juicy stuff.

The one critique I have of the book is the lack of perspective on discipleship.  Hugh does little to let us in on how he is helping people follow in the the footsteps of Jesus in a smaller context.  But, many would rightly argue that just created an incarnational community as a church context is a great start.  My hope is that Hugh would address this in future books.  And let me be clear that this in no way a knock on the book.

The target of this book, which was published by The Leadership Network is clearly pastors. Hugh and Matt are talking about a model for churches.  But I would offer that those who are leading small groups or communities could learn just as much from the book.

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This is the second part of a book review, exploring Phyllis Tickle’s, The Great Emergence. Part 1 is here.

Chapter 4 explores the agent of change in the Great Emergence we’re experiencing: science.  She points to Darwin’s theory of evolution and Faraday’s discovery of magnetic fields as the lines of demarcation for peri-Emergence.  I would offer that Tickle’s choice of Darwin is obvious but her choice of Faraday is brilliant.  Without Faraday’s breakthrough’s in electricity, the industrial revolution and the subsequent knowledge and Internet revolution would likely never have occurred, both of which have been pivotal tipping points to the Great Emergence.

Darwin on on the other hand is well known.  His work in biology led to the churches response, ultimately giving us the rise of fundamentalism.  Tickle states:

“That which has held hegemony (assumed leadership), finding itself under attack, always must drop back, re-entrench itself, run up its colors in defiance, and demand that the invaders attack its stronghold on its own terms.”

Sound familiar to anyone who has been attacked for being emergent?

This impact of science also extended to Freud and Jung in psychology, shedding light on the collective unconscious, asking what it really means to be human.  It was further pushed along by the radio and television, which propelled Joseph Campbell’s work to challenge some of the central themes of fundamentalism.

“A challenge that would have been rejected by believers as clerical heresy had it been delivered from the pulpit was now being listened to and thought about and talked about around water coolers and over backyard fences.”

The radio and eventually television allowed people to process valuable ideas and information in the comfort of their own home, as opposed to the “sacrosanct” space under the watchful eye of smarter people and religious leaders.  This served to fuel the collective imagination, freeing people to think and process ideas that were once off limits.

These freedoms eventually led to the cognitive sciences.  People began to ask:

“What are we/what am I?  Is there even such a thing as the ‘self’? … More to the point, how can ‘I’ be held responsible for anything anywhere anytime?”

This collective questioning then as Tickle states, reasserts “the same central question: Where, now, is authority?”  The process of reforming is then under the new authority established over time in the new expressions of religion.

Chapter 5 is the longest and by far my favorite chapter and essentially continues chapter 4.  It explores the central tipping points of the last 100 years, each seeming to build on each other.  It begins with Einstein’s special theory of relativity on, which then led to Heisenberg’s theory of uncertainty.  Heisenberg’s theory suggested that the act of observing something changes that very thing.  This called into question any notion of fact because the scientist observing fact is always changing the very thing he is observing.  Now apply this principle to the Bible and everyone gets scared.

“Enter the battle of The Book.  Enter the warriors, both human and inanimate, who will hack the already wounded body of Sola Scriptura into buriable pieces,” Tickle states.

This theory led Reimarus to ask if the Jesus of Western History is the same Jesus of the Nazareth.  This question spurred on the work of Crosson, Borg, and Pagels in the Jesus Seminar.

I find Tickles words fascinating here.  She says,

“Literalism based on inerrancy could not survive the blow (though is would die a slow and painful death); and without inerrancy-based literalism, the divine authority of the Scripture was decentralized, subject to caprices of human interpretation, turned into some kind of pick-and-choose bazaar for skillful hagglers.  Where now is our authority?

This question of authority pervades the book.  It almost feels like a grand theme invading history. But Tickle offers the first possible insight into this question in Pentacostalism, which relied on the leading of the Holy Spirit.  “Here is our authority,” Pentacostalism suggests.  This shift even comes at the expense of the authority of Sola Scriptura and pastors.

It was also interesting to hear how the automobile, Marxism, and AA significantly affected the role of the grandmothers as a defining force in the family and the pastor as a guiding force for leadership.  I was also really surprised but impressed that Tickle included the drug culture as a force in culture and on our perceptions on what is consciousness.

Tickle also tackles the issues that have given significant blows to the concept of Sola Scriptura.  These include slavery, women’s rights, divorce, women’s ordination, and gay rights.  She says,

“When it is all resolved-and it most surely will be-the Reformation’s understanding of Scripture as it had been taught by Protestantism for almost five centuries will be dead.  That is not to say that Scripture as the base of authority will be dead.  Rather it is to say that what the Protestant tradition has taught about the nature of that authority will be either dead or in mortal need of reconfiguration.”

That is a million dollar statement if true.  And remember, Tickle is a staunch Calvinist and 65 years old.  But it is the following sentences that caught me as just as important, for it is the reaction to this statement that we will likely experience in strong measure.  She says,

“And that kind of summation is agonizing for the surrounding culture in general.  In particular, it is agonizing for the individual lives that have been built upon it.  Such an ending is to be staved off with every means available and resisted with every bit of energy that can be mustered.”

I know people who are going through this and to watch it is sad to watch.

Tickle does agree that there are many concepts she does not or cannot touch that were significant in leading up to the Great Emergence.  The ones I believe were deeply significant that she did not touch on include the shift from agrarian culture to industrial culture (an outcome of Faraday’s work).  This shift took the father out of the home as a dominant force in the family.  Tickle does mention the loss of the mother with the advent of the pill, but misses the first shift that took place some 100 years earlier.  I was also surprised she didn’t mention the assassination of the Kennedy’s or MLK as watershed moments in emergence.  These three assassinations were reasonably considered some of the defining moments of my parents (and Tickle’s) generation.  The third event I would have highlighted was the Vietnam War.  This was the first time an large portion of a generation rebelled against their parents for reasons of trust, and in a way that was broadcast in the media.  The affects of it were revolutionary to say the least, causing a radical divergence (or emergence) in thinking from one generation to the next.

Section 3 – Where Is It Going?

One of the things I appreciate about Tickle’s approach is that she is humble in her approach to being a prophet.  But she does use existing developments to begin reading the “tea leaves” of where the church is going.

Chapter 6 explores the history of moments that gave the reformation its name and asks the same questions about the Great Emergence, suggesting there has yet to be such a catalyzing event such as the Protestatio.

I would only suggest that the events surrounding the Young Leaders Network explored in The New Christians will eventually be considered such a shifting event.  Out of this rose important people (McLaren, Kimball, Pagitt, Jones) who could began to wrestle with what was emerging and what it meant to emerge.

Tickle continues with the issue of definitions, exploring what the potential distinctions are and wrestling with the generous orthodoxy and overlapping nature of these distinctions.  Most, I would imagine find thesmelves in more than one box.  She even says,

“And so it goes–semi-permeable lines of division that mean to suggest places on a spectrum rather than absolute boundaries.”

I kept thinking of McLaren’s Generous Orthodoxy and the mashup of music that occurred over the last twenty years.  Good things came out of learning from each other and expressing it in creative ways. But the cost of this is also the purity that is derived from the original form and tradition.  And some are just simply not going to like or agree with this.

Tickle clarifies the distinctions of orthodoxy and especially orthopraxy, calling it, “(An) emphasis on (correct) religious action.”  I was struck by the notion of the tediousness she placed on orthopraxy.  It kind of struck me as odd.  But I also get that.  Orthopraxy, in a religious sense can feel tedious.  I think this is why I prefer Rollin’s understanding of “believing in the right way.”  The emphasis isn’t on the specific action, which can become an unnecessary burden in itself, but instead on the heart and motive of the action.  To me, love and trust are the central motives, not just actions of the Gospel, and thus are not specific religious constructs in that sense.

For Tickle, and I would share this, the Great Emergence is blurring the lines between the traditional categories we place ourselves in, which also find their identity in specific and historical, orthodox opinions and practices.

I also appreciated how Tickle brought out the shift from rural to urban living as playing a large part in this blurring of the lines of religious conversation.  The move from isolation in the outer areas to the city where people live on top of each other, shifted the conversation and took religion to the watercooler.  She explores how this conversation created a center of communication and thought.

“American religion had never had a center before, primarily because it was basically Protestant in its Christianity; and Protestantism, with its hallmark characteristic of divisiveness, has never had a center.  Now one was emerging, but that was emerging was no longer Protestant.”

Tickle then explored what came out of these conversations: the emerging expressions of people gathered together in conversation.  She says,

“All however share on shining characteristic: they are incarnational.  Not only is Jesus of Nazareth incarnate God, but Christian worship must incarnate as well.”

I deeply appreciated this and have stated so here.  She continues,

“There is enormous energy in centripetal force, especially as it gathers more and more of its own kind into itself.   Centripetal force, though, is usually envision by us as running downward, like the water in a bathtub drain.  The gathering force of the new Christianity did the opposite.  it ran upward and poured itself out, like some bursting geyser, in expanding waves of influence and nourishment.   Where once the corners had met, now there was a swirling center, its centripetal force racing from quadrant to quadrant in ever-widening circles, picking up ideas and people from each, sweeping them into the center, mixing them there, and then spewing them forth into a new way of being Christian, into a new way of being church.”

This one paragraph so aptly states the nature of the emerging movement. The backlash to this was that the purists (Tickle’s word, and for lack of a better term) of each camp would resist all change.  But Tickle suggests that this reaction is actually good for everyone involved acting as sort of a ballast so the “boat” doesn’t tip over.  She suggest change is good but only so much and over time.

I liked this idea and agree with it.  The conversations I have had with my friends who argue vehemently against the emerging church have been good for me.  They have allowed, even required, me to question my own thoughts and intentions and come to some great conclusions.

Tickle also explores the new expressions of the traditional movements.  These include traditionalists, re-traditionalists, progressives, and hyphenateds.  Each serves a valuable purpose in the four original quadrants. I particularly liked the metaphors she used to describe each expression, which I leave to those who read the book.

Chapter 7 reiterates the basis for all transformation is the question, “Where is the authority?”  It explores the new abstracts that emerge in the Great Emergence: orthonomy and theonomy. These terms describe the tension between the left and right camps to answer the ultimate question.

Where we are going is thus answered in the expression of where the authority lies.  Will it include Sola Scriptura in modified form?  Will in be subject to the influences of community?  Tickle also offers the idea of crowd sourcing to explain why conversation is so important.  But within this idea lies a brilliant analysis.  What is appears she is saying is that the ultimate question will be answered not by one source but by a conglomeration of sources (Scripture, community, Holy Spirit, circumstance, priesthood), all designed to keep authority from being aggregated and controlled by a small group of people.  This will not sit well with some people.

What is interesting is that Tickle seems to suggest that the Quakers had it right all along, willing to be open to multiple forms of authority and community context all along.  This fascinated me.  She also looked briefly into the history of Chuck Smith’s Calvary Chapel (which I attended in the 80’s) and Wimber’s Vineyard fellowship, highlighting the tensions with emergence in the former and the embracing of emergence in the latter.  She credits Wimber with the rally cry of “authenticity”.

Tickle does touch on center sets and bounded sets, narrative theology and Constantine’s impact on the Hellenization of Christianity, and our revisiting of key elements of doctrine and theology, but her mentions are only brief if well thought out.  She concludes with a statement that I found fascinating.  She said,

“If in pursuing this line of exegesis, the Great Emergence really does what most of its observers think it will, it will rewrite Christian theology-and thereby North American culture-into something far more Jewish, more paradoxical, more narrative, and more mystical that anything the Church has had for the last seventeen or eighteen hundred years.”

How you feel about this statement will likely coincide with how you feel about the Great Emergence itself.

Conclusion: I cannot overstate the importance of this book on the church.  It’s a simple, elegant book that takes about four hours to read, but will give those looking for a clear understanding of the history and complexity behind emergence a big piece of the puzzle.

You can also continue the conversation with Tickle and many others at The Great Emergence conference.

Well done Phyllis.

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Summary: Phyllis Tickle’s, The Great Emergence is my choice for book of the year in 2008. Tickle carefully crafts the historical shifts and tipping points leading up to what she calls a rummage sale on the church.  She answers three questions: What Is It, How did it come to be, and Where is it going?  The defining question of all reformations is clear: Where is our authority?  The book takes an important look at the events leading up to Sola Scriptura and the current events leading away from it.

The value of this book cannot be understated.  It helps us understand not just what is happening but also why it is happening within our previous history and current social-religious systems.  It’s much more than a history book.  It’s a clear and concise look into the strings that moved and are moving the system.

Part 1 – What Is it?

Chapter 1 explores the idea that ever 500 or so years, the world encounters a huge rummage sale of ideas and thoughts.  Tickle’s context here is in the church suggesting that the Great Reformation, The Great Schism, and even Gregory the Great were pivotal events in this cycle.  The rummage sale is the idea that everything gets looked through and put up for sale.  What is then birthed is not just a new expression of Christianity but also a much stronger previous version that grows.

Chapter 2 explores the human constructs/systems that essentially “tether us to the shore.”  I appreciated Tickle’s use of graphics to literally illustrate her point.

“The business of winding sufficient duct tape around the casing to make it hold takes us about a century or so, as a rule.”

This line intrigued me because humanity has never had as much power to communicate as today (in a wired world). How will this speed things up?  How will it affect the transmission of ideas when we’re no longer reliant on birds or horseman to deliver letters, instead receiving them instantly in email?  How will idea viruses take root in this new Great Emergence when blogs (or any new media outlet) can easily dispense, mash up, chew on and dispense iterations of these original ideas at light speed?  How will a new generation, one born into light speed adapt to these new ideas?  Suffice it so say, I wonder if one dominating aspect of the Great Emergence will likely be how fast it emerges, as much as any new theology or ideas that change our worldview.

Section 2 – How did it come to be?

Chapter 3 explores how the Great Reformation came to be asking a fascinating question.  Where is the authority?  As people tether to the shore, we need consensus of thoughts and ideas, validated from an authoritative group.  For those in the 16th century, this was the Pope.  But what happens when there is three Popes, as in the 14th century. Chaos ensues.

“Always without fail, the thing that gets lost early in the process of a reconfiguration is any clear and general understanding of who or what is to be used as the arbitrator of correct belief, action, and control.”

People want a leader to make decisions for them.  Luther and others shifted the fundamental authority from the Papacy to Sola Scriptura, which was a massive shift in terms of system because it put the emphasis back on humanity to engage the priesthood of all believers and become literate in the process.

The cost of this was obviously divisive denominationalism, infighting (bloody at times), individualism, and eventually capitalism.  Tickle rightly asserts the cost of Sola Scriptura.

“We begin to refer to Luther’s principle of ‘Sola Scriptura, Sola Scriptura’ as having been little more than the creation of a paper pope in place of a flesh and blood one. And even as we speak, the authority that has been in place for five hundred years withers away in our hands.  ‘Where now is the authority?’ circles overhead like a dark angel goading us towards disestablishment.  Where indeed?”

This responsibility and subsequent individualism eventually became “the common illusion, our shared imagination as Westerners about how the world works and how the elements of human life are to be ordered.” Tickle then argues that the shift in the Great Emergence is a rummage sale of those Reformation practices of individualism, the nuclear family, and even capitalism.  Selling the old makes way for the new.

As a side note: Tickle asks about the origins of the Renaissance, suggesting that the fall of the Byzantine Empire is that point.  I would offer that the rise of the Medici family in world banking was THE very reason for the Renaissance.  Their huge investment in art, science and architecture was deeply important. From Lorenzo , who gave us DaVinci, Michelangelo, Brunelleschi Dome and even Savanarola’s the Bonfire of the Vanities to Pope Leo, whose widespread use of indulgences were pivotal in Luther’s 95 Theses, no family had more influence on affairs of the world during the 14th to the 17th century.  No worries though.

Tickle also explores the impact of people like Copernicus and Columbus, who very actions challenged and later shattered long help teachings of the church.  But more importantly, these events created questions of authority.

“Could the church be wrong?  Yes.  It was that simple and devastating.”

These realizations produced not only bloodshed but also reform in both the Protestant expressions and the Roman Catholic Church. Tickle offers a caution that if we don’t learn our history we are destined to repeat it.

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Tomorrow I will post the second half of this book review.  It will include chapter 5 which is by far the best chapter in the book, from my perspective, and explores the events that led up to the Great Emergence.

You can also continue the conversation with Tickle and many others at The Great Emergence conference.

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It would be easy to read the title of this book and think I would automatically recommend it.  But you would be wrong.

The Emerging Church, by Bruce Sanguin was sent to me to review.  I picked it up hoping it might provide some fresh insight into the Emerging church conversation.  It did not.  It delves into the nature of “emergence” and applies it to the church.

Sanguin makes it very clear that he is influenced by Dominic Crosson and Marcus Borg.  I have nothing against them per se but there approach to Scripture is deeply influenced by a scientific standpoint that does not accept miracles, or anything that breaks the laws of science, thus rendering certain parts the the Scripture narrative obsolete.  This divide is very clear in Sanguin’s defense of an evolutionary perspective on “emergence” (which is a scientific principle) that only made me more confused.

Sanguin’s desire and focus from what I could tell was good.  But I kept feeling he and I came from entirely different paradigms.  Sanguin even begins the book by creating a distinction between the “so called Emergent church movement” or earlier paradigm/church, and his, which he calls an “emerging paradigm/church”.  What was funny was hearing that the emergent church is considered old school already.

I have to admit I kept thinking I don’t know anyone (which doesn’t mean they don’t exist) who begins with Sanguin’s foundation.  Yet I could imagine people reading it and easily assuming that this book is what the emerging church movement represents and immediately disregarding it, which is sad.

If you can get past this concern, Sanguin does offer some keen insights on the nature of emergence, which is a scientific process of organization.  He considers that nature of chaos and living in the tension which I appreciated.  He also shares some insights on the idea of mission and vision that I resonated with.  He also offers some interesting dialog on color coding the human value systems in history, but at the same time he offers them in an evolutionary framework.  Sanguin does reveal his Jesus Seminar influence here.

But then Sanguin offers an interpretation model of the Christ figure based on these color codings.  In other words, our view of Christ is deeply influenced by our values.  I get this but kept wondering what his view of Christ was but he did not define it.  I also realized that it would be easy to have a green/orange/red view, which would throw a whole new wrench in the works.  But more importantly I kept looking for my image of Jesus, and couldn’t find it.  There was no color for a Jesus who is the true humanity or a true image of the Father.

Sanguin makes it clear that he embraces and supports multiple worldviews.  His centre holds multi-faith experiences.  And it is here that his book will confuse a lot of people.  He delves into fairly deeply about the nature of the universe as a energy field.  This is a deeply interesting scientific conversation but will make a lot of people squirm, wondering when they crossed into a new age world.

I have to say this book was one of the more interesting books to read in a long time.  Not because of the content, but because it felt like a carnival ride.  He would say something really interesting and then something that I knew would make people cringe.  And maybe I read it to closely to the chest, wondering how many people would assume this is what I beleived. Oh well.

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What book are you currently reading (or have just finished reading) and why?  If you want, tell us what you think so far.

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I’m reading Surprised By Hope, by NT Wright. To be honest it is not the easiest read but it is good.

NT brings up a fascinating quirk in the story of Jesus’ resurrection.  Women were the first to see Jesus the morning of the resurrection. But Paul, in his account, almost glaringly leaves out the women.

1 Corinthians 15:3-8: For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Peter, and then to the Twelve. After that, he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers at the same time, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles, and last of all he appeared to me also, as to one abnormally born.

I could imagine Paul’s reasoning. NT comments extensively that women were not considered credible witnesses in the ancient world.  But Wright actualy suggests that this lends deep credibility to the stories in the Gospels BECAUSE the writers include the women’s accounts.

I’m wondering if Paul missed an opportunity here.

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